Basic electricity


Before you begin to immerse us in the electronics must have some notions about the physics of electricity, perhaps there are too advanced in math concepts, do not worry if you don’t understand them many shall not be used, but if it is necessary to have them. This manual is intended to be simple and for all audiences.

Before continuing perhaps many wonder that you difference between electricity and electronics, because here we go, electricity is a current to pass through device drivers (usually metals) and electronics for semiconductor (usually silicon or the vacuum).

Finally mention that not is a manual purely technical, my intent is create something simple and easy of understand, by what does not want to be too strict sometimes.

Tension and intensity

Them two concepts more important to have in has are the voltage and the electricity, many times is difficult understand them because in our lives are born and know the mechanical of them things, but the electricity is something that have had that discover by this are going to treat of explain these concepts as if were pipes of water.

The voltage or voltage

Imagine the tension as if outside a deposit of water high, in a mount for example, of this deposit leaves a pipe (wiring) and descends to a valley where is it city. When say that have 230 V, is similar to tell that the deposit this to 300 m of height, as more voltage have more current (intensity electric) will pass by it equal that much more high is the deposit more quickly will fall the water. What moment the tension might be as the force, it is as in a race car when all are speeding up waiting for the traffic light to change color to exit.

Intensity or power

In our deposit according to the characteristics of the pipe, tilt, thickness, materials… the water will fall more or less quickly, is measures in m3 / min, as the current is it same, is the amount of electrons that “run” by the cable, by the same cable to more tension will spend more electrons and to equal tension with a cable more fat will spend less electrons, i.e., you will cost more pass.

Kirchhoff laws


They are the most fundamental laws of electricity, we will try to explain them in the simplest way possible, that we understand its performance is crucial for any electric circuit and the electronic. They are only two and tell us such as currents and voltages in each part of the circuit.

The currents law

If we imagine the electrons as vehicles on a road at intersections (crossings and roundabouts) cars entering will be equal to the cars that come out, because it says the law of the Corrrientes, which in a node, at a junction of several drivers, the sum of currents entering equals the sum of the currents leaving.

The current law
The current law

Therefore in the example if we know three of the streams we can find out the fourth.

Law of tensions

This law is an adaptation of the law of conservation of the energy that hope all know, “the energy nor is creates or is destroys” in this second law of Kirchhoff says that in a tie closed the sum of them tensions is always zero. Perhaps it is a little more difficult to explain that the previous one but let’s do this.

Law of tensions
Law of tensions

In the case of our figure see that u1 = u2 + u3 + u4 u1 is the source of tension and fed to the rest of the circuit. In our example of the tank water, u1 is the water that comes out of the tank and the rest could be the use of three cities.


Well this has been the first issue, the more difficult also later we’ll see more fun stuff and we will create our own circuits, but so it is necessary to know these basics, you need to know as it is the nature of electricity to understand it and use it for our purposes.


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